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Madiha Rizvi Group

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Siegfried Lazarev
Siegfried Lazarev

A Sensory Stage __TOP__



Measurements: 21-channel EEG was recorded during the 2-3 hour experiment carried out between 13:00 and 16:00. Somatosensory, auditory, or visual stimulation was performed over a 5-minute period during stage 2. The frequency and duration of spindles were compared in 2 different segments of 5 minutes, with and without sensory stimulation. The latency from the onset of a sensory stimulus to the succeeding spindle was also analyzed. To estimate the active brain regions during a spindle, the EEG recordings were modeled with a single equivalent moving dipole (SEMD) model.




A Sensory Stage



Results: In the period with stimulation, spindle frequency and duration increased compared with the period without stimulation. Statistical tests revealed that with stimulation, the interval between 2 consecutive spindles was significantly shorter (p


Conclusions: A sensory stimulus appeared to trigger a sleep spindle during sleep stage 2. SEMD trajectories suggest that active brain regions during spindle are different according to the modality of the preceding stimulus.


Sensory friendly performances are designed to welcome patrons who live with neurodiversity, such as autism or other sensory sensitivity needs, by creating a judgment-free atmosphere in the theater. During the performance, house lights will be dimmed but not turned out completely, patrons may move about as necessary for their comfort, and patrons will not be discouraged from vocalizing during the performance.


Depending on the content and production elements, changes also may be made to the onstage performance. These could include modifying or eliminating some lighting and/or sound effects and editing content from scenes. These modifications will vary depending on the show.


This substage occurs between 12 and 18 months, the beginning of toddlerhood. At this point, your child can explore their world and learn even more about it through motor coordination, planning, and experimentation.


During the sensorimotor stage, babies learn by using their senses to explore their environments. Providing a range of activities that involve the five senses help them develop their sensory abilities as they move through the substages. Offer your child:


The purpose of this paper is to describe a sensory reeducation program classified into five stages: (1) feature detection and recognition of objects; (2) correction of the pattern of prehension in the hand; (3) control of precise force for grasping objects; (4) maintenance of grip force during movement of the proximal joints; and (5) manipulation of objects. The program is specific to hand function in activities of daily living and is based on recent neurophysiological findings. It is illustrated by a detailed case study. The authors report that, through sensory reeducation a patient who had an insensitive hand gained the ability to recognize objects. She learned to utilize a sense of muscle resistance and a sense of vibration in the shoulder. Her body image improved along with the usefulness of her hand in activities of daily living.


Another important hallmark of the sensorimotor stage is that children learn the concept of cause and effect. The idea of causality is when a child understands that they can move objects with their hands and understand how their physical actions affect their environment. The concept of causality is an essential foundation for the later realization of object permanence.


Tickets for the 2022/2023 Season's Sensory Friendly Performances are $10*, and are on sale now. Order by phone at (414) 267-2961, weekdays 9AM-4PM, or order online.*Performances at the Marcus Performing Arts Center will add a $3.50 facility fee per ticket.Enjoy a performance where families with children who need sensory accommodations can share the experience of seeing family-friendly theater.


Three new summer events have been announced to enhance the theatre-going experience at Disney's Winnie the Pooh: The New Musical Stage Adaptation. The family-friendly entertainment, now running at the Hundred Acre Theatre at Theatre Row through July 24, will offer a sensory-friendly performance, nostalgia nights, and themed treats with dessert partners throughout the city.


The sensory-friendly performance is set for July 20 at 11 AM and will include lowered audio and raised house lighting. Fidgets and designated relaxation spaces will be available and no shushing is allowed. Older Pooh friends can enjoy specialty cocktails, puppeteer talkbacks, and free swag on Nostalgia Nights, running the remaining three Saturday nights: July 9, 16, and 23 at 7 PM. Finally, audiences can embark on their own pre- or post-show Hunny Hunt with special Pooh-inspired desserts at sweet shops throughout New York City. Check those out here.


Routine nerve conduction studies (NCS) were undertaken in all patients on the sural, tibial, common peroneal, and superficial radial nerves using a Medelec Synergy system (Oxford Instruments, High Wycombe, UK) and standard techniques.10 The severity of neuropathy in the present study was staged using a modified form of a previously devised system11:


We show that of all peripheral nervous system structures, only sensory dorsal root ganglia require β-catenin for proper formation and growth. Surprisingly, however, dorsal root ganglia development is independent of cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. Rather, both progenitor cell proliferation and fate specification are controlled by β-catenin signaling. These can be divided into temporally sequential processes, each of which depends on a different function of β-catenin.


While early stage proliferation and specific Neurog2- and Krox20-dependent waves of neuronal subtype specification involve activation of TCF transcription, late stage progenitor proliferation and Neurog1-marked sensory neurogenesis are regulated by a function of β-catenin independent of TCF activation and adhesion. Thus, switching modes of β-catenin function are associated with consecutive cell fate specification and stage-specific progenitor proliferation.


Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a population of multipotent cells that delaminate from the dorsal part of the neural tube during neurulation of vertebrate embryos [17]. Upon delamination, NCCs migrate along specific routes throughout the embryo to give rise to a broad variety of derivatives, such as the neuronal and glial cells of the peripheral and enteric nervous system as well as craniofacial bone, cartilage, smooth muscle, and melanocytes. Wnt signaling has been implicated at multiple developmental stages of the neural crest [18-24]. In particular, we have previously demonstrated the consequences of conditional ablation of β-catenin in the premigratory NCCs using Cre recombinase driven by the Wnt1 promotor (Wnt1-Cre) [18,25]. Inactivation of β-catenin in Wnt1-Cre Ctnnb1 flox/flox embryos resulted in a drastic reduction of sensory neuronal, and complete absence of glial, lineages in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), whereas other neural derivatives, such as sympathetic ganglia and the enteric nervous system, appeared to develop normally [18]. Sensory neurogenesis involves the generation of multiple neuronal subtypes in three temporal waves and is tightly associated with the aggregation of NCCs in DRG [26]. However, it remains to be determined to what extent β-catenin transactivation signaling as opposed to other functions, such as β-catenin-mediated adhesion and TCF/β-catenin-mediated de-repression, controls sensory neuronal subtype specification and DRG formation. Here, we exploited our novel β-catenin signaling mutant allele, Ctnnb1 dm, together with β-catenin null and other conditional knockout alleles, and reveal distinct requirements of β-catenin functions for sensory neurogenesis. Surprisingly, while β-catenin/α-catenin-mediated cellular adhesion plays a negligible role in sensory neuron formation, several steps in sensory neurogenesis require β-catenin, but only some of these are dependent on β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation.


To determine the cause for the reduction of the sensory lineage in βcat-Sig and βcat-Null embryos, respectively, the presence of undifferentiated DRG progenitors during migration at E9.5 and post migration at E10.5 and E12.5 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the transcription factor Sox10 expressed by the multipotent NCCs [30] and β-gal expressed from the R26R lineage tracer (Figure 2B-D, F-H, J-L). In comparison to control embryos, the number of Sox10-positive progenitors was retained in both mutants in migratory NCCs at E9.5 as well as in forming DRG at E10.5 (Figure 2B-D, F-H). The reduction of the DRG size in both mutant embryos relative to control DRG was first observed after E10.5. Interestingly, from E10.5 to E12.5 the DRG of the βcat-Sig R26R embryos maintained a relatively constant size, whereas the size of the DRG of the β-cat-Null R26R mutants began to decrease (Figure 2M).


In peripheral sensory lineages, neuronal subtype specification occurs in sequential waves of neurogenesis driven by proneural transcription factors [26]. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor neurogenin 2 (Neurog2) initiates a first wave of neurogenesis and is expressed in an early population of migratory NCCs. It is continuously expressed throughout their migration until they reach the forming DRG, after which it is largely down regulated [32,33]. Migratory cells expressing Neurog2 at high levels give rise to tyrosine receptor kinase (Trk) B- and TrkC-positive neurons [32]. A later wave of neurogenesis is formed by Sox10-positive DRG progenitors, of which a subgroup will express the bHLH transcription factor neurogenin 1 (Neurog1) post migration within the coalesced DRG. This Neurog1-mediated wave mainly gives rise to neurons expressing TrkA [32], but can partially contribute to the TrkB and TrkC population. Furthermore, both waves of DRG progenitors generate glia. The third and final wave of neurogenesis produces the boundary cap cells (BCCs). BCCs give rise to peripheral glia, which appear in small clusters at the surface of the spinal cord, at prospective motor exit points and dorsal root entry zones. A fraction of cells surrounding the dorsal root entry zone migrate into the formed DRG and generate a small population of TrkA-positive neurons [34].


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